The town's name comes from the combination of the "Aesa", from the name of the Celtic god of war "Esus" and "Anatolia", a martyr of the III century A.D. Municipality in the province of Macerata, whose territory is washed by the river Esino, is located on the border with the province of Ancona. The town, with its typical Medieval characteristics, consists of seven districts, each marked by a square and a church steeples. In the Middle Ages, two rings of city walls encircled the buildings for defense purposes and the access to the City was through four main gateways. La Rocca and other fortifications completed the structure and guaranteed its safety from enemy attacks. Unfortunately not all have survived the time and have been subject to decay. The town is famous for the production of fine wines (Verdicchio), mushrooms and truffles.
The findings in the area, that date back to the Paleolithic, the Neolithic and Eneolithic Ages evidence the presence of settlements since ancient times. The earliest references date back to an old certificate of 1015: when the town was under the rule of the family of Malcavalca. Domain that continued until the XIII century, when it was ceded to the Ottoni, who, only a few years later, passed their rights to the da Varano. Since then and for the subsequent 300 hundred years, the center acquired a certain autonomy and gained its first statutes in the first half of the XIV century. During the XV century it was conquered by Francesco Sforza, and during the looting that followed, the famous monastery of St. Angelo suffered heavy damage. During the early years of the XVI century Esanatoglia became part of the Papal States.
- the Parish Church of Sant'Anatolia, located in the oldest part of the town, was built on the place where the martyr Anatolia was buried. The building, which is mentioned in documents dating back to 1180, has an interesting XIII century stone portal;
- the Church of Santa Maria Maddalena, which preserves several valuable works of art;
- the Church of Santa Maria of Montebianco;
- the Church of the Capuchins;
- The fountains of San Martino, which are a brilliant example of XIV century hydraulic works;
- Palazzo Varano, today seat of the Town Hall;
- the Old Paper Mill.